- consistory . There were also religious and organizational conflicts and rivalries with the more right-wing Federation of Synagogues (1887) founded by Lord Swaythling and the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations (Adath Yisroel) established by Victor (Avigdor) Schoenfeld in 1926. Its dominating figure in the mid-20th century was its president, sir robert waley cohen . With the emergence of a more staunchly Orthodox lay leadership after World War II, and especially following sir isaac wolfson 's election as president in 1962, the United Synagogue swung to the right. The United Synagogue's centenary celebrations in 1970 were attended by Queen Elizabeth. In recent years it has been repeatedly challenged from both the theological right and left and has diminished somewhat in popularity – as measured, for instance, by the marriages it performs – compared with either Strict Orthodoxy or non-Orthodox strands. In the mid-1960s, the rise of the Masorti movement, led by Rabbi Louis Jacobs and linked with the American Conservative movement, represented a significant challenge to the "U.S." Both recent chief rabbis, immanuel jakobovits and jonathan sacks , have engaged in high-profile disputes with other strands in Anglo-Jewry, especially with the Progressive movement. In 2004 there were 46 member synagogues of the "U.S." in London, together with another 20 London synagogues affiliated to it and several dozen outside of London. Aubrey Newman's The United Synagogue, 1870 – 1970 (1977) is a history of the group's first century. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Roth, Archives of the United Synagogue. Report and Catalogue (1930); idem, The Great Synagogue, London, 1690–1940 (1950); B. Homa, A Fortress in Anglo-Jewry: the Story of the Machzike Hadath (1953), index; V.D. Lipman (ed.), Three Centuries of Anglo-Jewish History (1961), index; idem, in: JHSET, 21 (1968), 78–103; A. Barnett, Western Synagogue through Two Centuries (1761–1961) (1961), index. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Alderman, Modern British Jewry (1992); W.D. Rubinstein, Jews in England.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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